Wrap Pass Glossary

All woven wrap carries can be broken down into different types of passes.  Knowing the names of the passes can help you learn new carries more easily.  It can also help you adapt carries you already know to make them suit your needs better.  This blog post will show  you the main types of passes and explain what makes each pass type unique.

Three Main Pass Types

There are three passes that can stand alone as a carry.  These passes often form the first pass of a carry.  
Pass Glossary main passes

Horizontal/Torso Pass


Horizontal passes (also known as torso passes) go straight across the baby’s back and under both of the wearers arms. This pass is used as the first pass in Front Wrap Cross Carry and Back Wrap Cross Carry. It is also used as a second or third pass in many carries to add support. 

More about Horizontal Passes:

  • This type of pass secures the baby nicely against the wearers back and does not leave any openings at the baby’s sides.
  • Horizontal passes can add some warmth to a carry because the sides wrap around the wearer.
  • Carries that start with horizontal passes tend to be lower carries because the carry can only go as high as the wearer’s armpits.  
  • Horizontal passes can add support to a carry, making it more comfortable to carry a heavy child.

Ruck/Kangaroo Pass


Ruck passes (also known as kangaroo passes) create a seat for the baby and then go up and over both of the wearers arms.  This pass type is used in all of the ruck back carry variations and kangaroo front carry variations.

More about Ruck Passes: 

  • Ruck passes tend to create a nice high carry where baby can easily see over the wearer’s shoulder (in a back carry)
  • This pass tends to be cooler in summer because you can get ventilation at the baby’s sides.  
  • Kangaroo passes with a nice tight top rail are excellent for preventing leaning.  
  • Kangaroo passes are not leg straightener-proof.  

Sling Pass


Sling passes are kind of a cross between ruck and horizontal passes.  Sling passes go across the baby’s back at a slight diagonal, staying high on baby’s back.  They go over one of the wearer’s arms and under the other.  This pass is used in most carries with the name “hammock” or “sling” in it.

More about Sling Passes:

  • Sling passes protect against leaning.  
  • Sling passes do not protect against leg straightening.
  • Sling passes tend to be slightly lower on the wearer’s back than ruck passes, but slightly higher on the back than horizontal passes.

Secondary Pass Types:  Reinforcing and Bunched Passes

In addition to the four main pass types, many carries include bunched versions of passes or reinforcing passes.  These passes cannot stand alone as a carry, but can add extra protection against leg straightening or extra reinforcement to the carry.

Cross Pass Or Wiggleproof Pass


Cross passes (the pass created with the blue wrap in the picture) go across baby’s back at a diagonal and under one of baby’s legs.  These passes go over one of the wearer’s shoulders and under the other.  This pass is used in most carries with the word “cross” in it such as Front Cross Carry, or Back Wrap Cross Carry.  This type of pass can also be called a “wiggle proof” pass.  Wiggle proof passes are cross passes that are wrapped in an upward direction (starting from under the leg, spreading the pass over baby’s back, and then coming over the shoulder).  Some people also call these “leg passes” because they go under the leg.  

More about Cross Passes:

  • Cross Passes provide excellent protection against leg straightening.  
  • Cross passes can be airy and provide a little ventilation at baby’s sides. 
  • These passes are used in many poppable front carries.
  • Cross passes do not protect against leaning.
  • Typically cross passes are not the first pass in a back carry.  If a back carry begins with a cross pass (such as back cross carry or Half Jordan’s Back Carry with the cross pass done first, the wrapper must keep a hand on baby until the second pass is complete to prevent a fall.

Reinforcing Cross Pass


Reinforcing Cross Passes are passes that come from under one of the wearer’s arms, diagonally across the baby’s body and under baby’s leg.  This pass cannot be the basis of a carry, but may add extra support to the carry or prevent the baby from straightening his or her legs.  

More about Reinforcing Cross Passes:

  • Reinforcing Cross Passes can help distribute the weight of a heavy baby a bit more.
  • Reinforcing Cross Passes protect against leg straightening.
  • These passes do not provide any protection against leaning.
  • They can be difficult to spread out and get high on baby’s back because the pass can only start as high as the wearers armpit.  

Bunched Cross Pass


A bunched cross pass is reinforcing cross pass that is bunched up into a tube of fabric rather than spread over baby.  It goes under the wearers arm, across the baby’s bottom, and under one of the baby’s legs.

More about Bunched Cross Passes:

  • Bunched cross passes can pin the “seat” of the carry in place.  
  • They provide protection against leg straightening. 
  • These passes are very quick to do.  
  • Bunched passes are airier in summer than spread passes.
  • Bunched cross passes provide no protection against leaning.
  • Bunched cross passes do not add as much additional support and comfort to the carry as passes that are spread out.  

Bunched Horizontal Passes


A bunched horizontal pass is a horizontal pass that is bunched up into a tube of fabric rather than spread over baby.  It goes under both of the wearers arms and across the baby’s bottom, but does not go under either of baby’s legs.

More about Bunched Horiztonal Passes:

  • Bunched passes can pin the seat fabric in place.  
  • They are very quick to create.
  • Bunched passes are airier in summer than spread passes.  
  • Bunched horizontal passes do not provide protection against leg straightening or leaning.  
  • They do not add as much additional support to a carry as passes that are spread out.  


Once you know all of the building blocks of wrap carries, it is very easy to learn new carries.  Visit the carry cheat sheet to learn how all of the wrap passes are combined to create common wrap carries.

Reblogged and edited with permission from Patuxent Babywearing.

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